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How to install iSpring reverse osmosis?

Faucet Mount Water Filter

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Frequently asked questions
Thank you for selecting iSpring water filters. You are now almost ready for a clean and safe drinking water with great taste. We take pride in our business and our water filter products. Your satisfaction is our top priority. Please feel free to contact us through email at sales@ispringfilter.com for any question you might have during installation or after installation.

Q1: What Is Reverse Osmosis? Answer

Q2: How Effective Is Reverse Osmosis Filtration? Answer

Q3: What are the specific contaminants that a reverse osmosis system removes? Answer

Q4: Does Reverse Osmosis remove pharmaceuticals from water? Answer

Q5: Will a reverse osmosis water system taste as good as the water I pay $5.00 a bottle for? Answer

Q6: I have heard that reverse osmosis wastes a lot of water! Answer

Q7: What is Alkaline filter? Answer

Q8: What is DI filter? Answer

Q9: What is UV filter? Answer

Q10: What is a TDS meter? Answer

Q11: Replacement schedule of filters? Answer

Q12: Maximum distance from tank to faucet? Answer

Q13: Leaking around filter housing (O-ring too small or not in place) Answer

Q14: Little water out of faucet, tank is heavy and appears full of water, but the stream turns very weak after a few seconds Answer

Q15: Continuous drain problem? Answer

Q16: High TDS level in RO water? Answer

Q17: Tastes and Odors in Product Water Answer

Q18: Faucet Leaks or Drips Answer

Q19: What is an ASOV and what does it do? Answer

Q20: Cloudy ice cubes or milky colored water Answer

Q21: UV lamp compatibility Answer

Q22: After installation, the water out of the RO faucet is only a trickle. Is this normal? Answer

Q23: Sudden drop in RO water production: There are a few potential factors causing the problem? Answer

Q24: Water is hot out of UV filter? Answer

Q25: How do you compare your tankless RO system RCB4T to GE Merlin 700GPD system? Answer

Q26: How to differentiate between thread types? Answer

Q27: How to measure PEX, CPVC, copper, and polyethylene tbing connection? Answer

Q28: How to Use "Quick Connect" Fittings? Answer

Q&A about Drinking Water
Q1What are the top five types of health-threatening water pollutants?
A1Microorganisms, Toxic minerals and metals, Organic chemicals, Radioactive substances, Additives
Q2Give examples for microorganisms
A2Bacteria, viruses, and parasites such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium cysts
Q3What are the decease that microorganisms can cause?
A3Typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and flu
Q4What are the two most common and troublesome of protozoan parasites?
A4Called giardia and cryptosporidium.
Q5What are the main nuisance minerals? And what is the cause?
A5Calcium and magnesium, which cause hardness in water
Iron and manganese, which cause staining
Hydrogen sulfide gas, which causes a rotten-egg odor
Q6Give few examples for some minerals that have the greatest toxicity.
A6Cadmium (not Calcium), lead and mercury
Q7What is the disease in infants which caused by High levels of nitrates and nitrites?
A7"Blue baby" disease
Q8What is Organic Matter?
A8Organic Matter is chemical substances that come directly from, or are manufactured from, plant or animal matter.
Q9What is the source of plastic?
Q10 What is meaning of "VOC"?
A10Volatile organic chemicals. The Safe Drinking Water Act implementation includes a list labeled "VOCs in connection with contaminants that are organic and volatile".
Q11 What are the types of radioactive substances in water?
A11radioactive minerals and radioactive gas.
Q12 What are the basic properties of "Radon"?
A12colorless, odorless, naturally occurring gas
Q13 What are the two ways that Radon gas enters a house?
A13From the soil beneath the house through cracks in the foundation. And via the water system
Q13.1What is the most effective way to remove Radon in water?
A13.1aeration and carbon filter
Q14 What are the important facts to remember about water fluoridation?
A14Fluoride is a potent poison whose level of ingestion must be carefully regulated.
Q15 What agency is authorized to set quality standards for drinking water?
A15The Environmental Protection Agency
Q16 What is the alert, which has to be focus if your water comes from ground?
A16 High levels of radon and toxic metals
Q17 What is the alert, which has to be focus if the wells your water company uses are near any industrial facilities, gas stations or landfills?
A17Toxic organic chemicals
Q18 What is the alert, which has to be focus if your water company's source is surface water?
A18Presence of harmful microorganisms, nitrates and organic chemicals.
Q19 What is the alert, which has to be focus if you are using water from an agricultural area?
A19presence of nitrates, pesticides, herbicides and other organic chemicals.
Q20 What is the Advantage, which will you get if you are using water from an agricultural area?
A20water is generally free of harmful microorganisms because large amount of pesticides is used
Q21 What is THM?
A21Trihalomethanes. Adding too much chlorine and bromine to disinfect the water can result in creation of potentially harmful trihalomethanes.
Q22 What is the risk of unsealed Well?
A22An unsealed well is susceptible to pollution from surface micro-organism.
Q23 Why the water that reaches your house would probably still be polluted even if water treatment plants were totally effective in removing all pollutants from water?
A23Distribution pipes themselves pollute the water, The distribution pipes may contain micro-organisms, Chemicals and sometime the material of the pipe may pollute the water itself.
Q24 What are the pipes that are commonly used to distribute water in USA?
A24cement-asbestos pipes. Micro-scopic asbestos fibers and polybutylene (PB Pipes)
Q25 What is the main significance that helps to identify the PB Pipes easily?
A25Distinctive gray color
Q26 what is the main fault with the PB Pipes?
A26It is porous to toxic solvents and to many common pesticides and herbicides
Q27 How is Lead contaminates water through faucet?
A27Lead leaches out of the metal of the faucet into the water. If the faucet is not used for wash water the next morning
Q28 Why water tests done by water purifier dealers are misleading people?
A28Most of these dealers do not have the sophisticated equipment and expertise there are required to detect a variety of pollutants. What they do have are inexpensive test kits that have been designed to produce dramatic visual effects.
Q29 What is the current maximum allowed for lead
A2950 parts per billion
Q30 What is Distilled water?
A30Water that has had essentially all of the dissolved substances within it removed
Q31 What are the other names for Distilled water
A31purified, dematerialized or de-ionized water
Q32 State An argument against drinking distilled water?
A32An argument against drinking distilled water is that you lose a source of necessary minerals in your diets, while the main source of minerals comes from meals.
Q33 What is the most inert material for containers?
A33Glass is the most inert material for containers
Q34 What is "Hard" Water?
A34"Hard" water is water that contains large amounts of dissolved "hard" minerals, that are, Calcium and (usually a lot less) Magnesium.
Q35 What is the "Soft" Water?
A35Soft water that contains small amounts of Calcium & Magnesium. Salt based water softener "softens" water by exchanging Calcium and Magnesium with Sodium.
Q36 What is the disadvantage of hard water
A36more soap or detergent is needed to get clothing, dishes or other items cleaned
Q37 What are the advantages of Soft water?
A36makes skin feel smoother & hair feel softer and causes less scale
Q38 How does Water Softener (salt based) work?
A38Replace Calcium & Magnesium in the water with salt (Sodium Chloride).
Q39 What does "TDS" stands for? Total dissolved solids.
Q40 What is the relationship between minerals and the salt in softened water?
A40If your incoming tap water has law levels of minerals, your softened water will be law in salt. If your tap water has a high levels of minerals, your softened water will have a high level of salt.
Q41 How does insufficient water consumption causes the body to gain weight?
A41This is because fat cannot be completely metabolized (converted to energy) without adequate water in the body.
Q42 what can be noted as the healthiest water?
A42The healthiest water is that which is free of pollutants but which has a high mineral content
Q43 What is the advice, if you want to drink distilled water?
A43If you drink distilled water, make sure it is stored in glass containers.
Q44 What are the Four Simple ways to reduce pollutant?
  1. The 30-Second Wait
  2. Open Air
  3. Boiling
  4. Stirring
Q45 What you have to do when you draw water from a tap that has not been used for a while?
A45allow the water to flow for about thirty seconds before using it - The 30-Second Wait
Q46 What should be done when you release tapped water?
A46when you are drawing tapped water form drinking or cooking, try to remember to turn the water on gradually, the wait about ten seconds before filling your container.
Q47 What is the easiest method to remove Chlorine from tapped water?
A47Just allow your tap water to stand in an open container and let Chlorine vents out
Q48What is the preferred time to boil to get water disinfect
A4810 minutes
Q49Why it is not recommended to use Aluminum to boil water?
A49Trace Aluminum in drinking water has been linked to increased rates of disease C Alzheimers disease in particular.
Q50How to starrer tapped water.
A50Stirring tap water in an Electric Blender at low speed (to avoid splashing) for ten minutes will cost volatile contaminants to evaporate, Be sure to do it with the blender cover of to allow for evaporation.
Q51 What are the five kinds of bottled water?
A51purified water, drinking water and fluoridated water, natural-source water and specialty water.
Q51 What are the source water for the first three types - purified water, drinking water and fluoridated water?
A51municipal water, the same water that comes out of your tap
Q52 What are the steps of processing purified water, drinking water and fluoridated water?
A52typically filter the water (to remove dirt and most harmful chemicals), demineralize it (to remove any toxic minerals),and aerate it (to remove any odors by Exposing it to air.
Q53Complete the missing steps in the following diagram
A53diagram missing
Q54 What can be denoted as Purest Water?
A54Reverse Osmosis water or distilled water
Q55 Why we call Distilled water as "aggressive" water.
A55Purified water has had all of its foreign constitutions (which are mostly minerals) removed. This is not a natural state. In the natural state, water contains many different kinds of minerals. Once purified, water will try to return to its natural states by reacting chemically with any material it contacts. Because of this tendency, purified water is "aggressive" water.
Q56 Why it is advanced not buy purified water in plastic bottles.
A56Because "the aggressiveness" of purified water may cause long term health problems.
Q57 Why is the bottled drinking water different than distilled water?
A57Bottle water that is labeled drinking water is water that has been partially purified, with its minerals allowed to remain, or it is water that has been truly purified (completely de mineralized) and then had minerals replaced to improve the taste.
Q58 What is Specialty Water?
A58Specialty water includes water products with added flavors and / or Carbonation, such as lemon C flavored sparkling water.
Q59 What to look in label when buying bottled water?
A59"Drinking Water" instead of "Purified Water" because "Drinking Water" must meet the standards in The Drinking Water Act.
Q60 what will happen if you allow stored water to be in direct sunlight?
A60sunlight increases some Microbial growth and allows more chemicals from the container to enter the water.
Q61 What will happen if you drink water directly from the bottle?
A61You are transferring millions of Microorganisms from your mouth to the water each time you do this.
Q62 what is the source of Vending machine water?
A62municipal tap water
Q63 What is the week point of vending machine water?
A63the clean lines of the containers you use to collect the water.
Q64 Who is responsible for enforcing the state standards?
A64Counting agencies
Q65 What is The first thing you should look for when you consider using a water vending machine?
A65a seal or label of certification by your state or county
Q66 for what do you advised to look if you cant find a label of certification on the machine?
A66the manufacturers label
Q68 What should you do before you collect water to containers?
A68Wash your containers thoroughly with detergent and rinse them several times before use it. If they not to be used immediately turn your containers upside C down to let all of the excess water drip out, and let all of the water inside of them dry thoroughly before capping them.
Q69 What will happen When water is stored for longer periods?
A69it starts to pick up taste and smells and will eventually grow bacteria and other microorganisms unless it and the containers have been sterilized.
Q70 what is the best material to store water?
Q71 Why it is not recommended to use soft, cloudy C looking plastic bottles?
A71This kind of plastic has a tendency to migrate
Q72 Why it is not recommended to use plastic containers that were made for purpose other than holding food?
A72utility containers made for non-food use may contain vinyl compounds, which are toxic and can leach into the water.
Q73 What you have to do After a bottle has been emptied of drinking water?
A73Drain out all excess water and allow the bottle to dry for a week or two, upside down, with the cap off. Drying the bottles thorough will kill most microorganisms that may have started to grow in them.
Q74 What are the two kinds of retail stores that sell bulk water?
A74health food stores and water specialty stores.
Q75 How much percentage of minerals will be removed If the water has been treated by reverse osmosis?
A75NSF standard 58 is above 90%
Q76 How much percentage of minerals will be removed If the water has been treated by distillation?
A7697% - 99%
Q77 State an effective way to store water for emergency use
A77Sterilize the water once it is in its container by adding an appropriate amount of iodine
Q78 what are the steps of sterilizing water using Iodine?
A78Add the appropriate amount of iodine (as specified on the iodine container) and then fill the bottle completely to the top with water so no air remains when the caps are put on. Carefully seal the caps by wrapping tape tightly around them. When the caps are sealed, turn the bottles on their sides for a while so that the iodinated water contacts the insides of the caps and sterilizes them as well.
Q79 What are the The basic types of water purifiers for home use?
  1. Sediment Filter
  2. Carbon Filter
  3. Ceramic Filter
  4. Membrane Filter such as Reverse osmosis and Ultrafiltration
  5. Distiller
  6. Ultraviolet
Q80 What are the other methods of treating water other than the basic ways of home water purifier?
A80Aeration, de-ionization, and ozonation
Q81 How Sediment filters work?
A81Sediment filters work by mechanical sieve action
Q82 For what purpose does Sediment Filters used for?
A82They are used for removing dirt and other particles from water.
Q83 what will be the minimum required filter for a private system?
A83A sediment and carbon filter with disinfection method such as chlorine or UV.
Q84 What are three types of sediment filters?
A84wound string, rigid foam and pleated film
Q85 For what purpose does the Carbon filters are used for?
A95Used to remove a wide variety of chemical pollutants from water They are especially effective on organic chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides and industrial chemicals. They are also effective in removing radon, chlorine, and bad tasted and smells
Q86 What will not be removed by the carbon filters?
A86They will not remove microorganisms or toxic minerals.
Q87 What is The carbon in water filters is called?
A87Activated Carbon
Q88 How does the activated carbon prepared?
A88This kind of carbon is made by specially heating wood, coconut or coal so that it forms millions of microscopic pores and very large surface
Q89 what are the two forms of carbon in wide use?
A89granular activated carbon (GAC) and carbon block (CTO)
Q90 what is the disadvantage of carbon block filter when comparing to granular carbon filter?
A90Carbon block can be clogged by sediments such as dirt or mineral particles more easily than granular carbon, which acts as its own sediment filter,
Q91 On what things do Effective carbon filtration depends on?
  • (1) the amount of time the water contacts the carbon (the slower the flow, the more effective the filtration)
  • (2) the density of the carbon (carbon block is more effective than granular carbon, and fine granular carbon is more effective than coarse granular carbon)
  • (3) the quantity of carbon (the larger the filter, the more effective the filtration)
  • (4) the amount of water that has passed through the carbon (the fresher the carbon the better the filtration).
    Q92 What is the usual bacterial growth inhibitor which is added to carbon?
    Q93 What is "backwashing"?
    A93A value in the filter so that water flow can be reversed and flush out accumulated contaminants. This is called backwashing.
    Q94 What are the main things to remember If you use a carbon filter?
    A94Avoid using the first flow: wait thirty seconds in the morning. Use a slow flow rate: one C half gallon per minute or less (the stream of water should be narrower than a pencil) Replace the carbon at regular intervals. If the output water begins to smell or taste bad, discard the carbon immediately.
    Q95 What does it mean by "bacteriostatic"?
    A95This means that bacteria do not multiply within the filter.
    Q96 What are the two types of filters that remove bacteria and parasites from water?
    A96The membrane filter and the ceramic filter.
    Q97 What is the advantage of ceramic filter over membrane filter?
    A97Ceramic filter can be washed every few days and reused
    Q98 What is the meaning of the word "Redox"?
    A98reduction C oxidation in KDF media
    Q99 What Osmosis?
    A99Osmosis is the passage of molecules through the microscopic pores of a living or synthetic membrane
    Q100How do Distillers Work?
    A100Water is boiled and produces steam. The steam is cooled and condenses back into water. Any substances that cannot evaporate are left behind in the boiling chamber.
    Q101What are the basic types of water purifiers for home use?
  • Sediment Filter
  • Carbon Filter
  • Ceramic Filter
  • Membrane Filter such as Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultrafiltration (UF)
  • Distiller
  • Ultraviolet (UV)
    Q102What are other methods of treating water?
    A102Aeration De-ionization Ozonation
    Q103What is a medium in a Water Filter?
    A103All filters use a substance that traps, absorbs or modifies pollutants in the incoming water. The substance within filters is called a medium.
    Q104How does the filter media work?
    A104There are many different kinds of filter media. Some work by mechanically trapping pollutants with an ultra fine sieve action. Others attract pollutants by their electrical charge. And still others employ a process called adsorption, in which pollutants are trapped within the microscopic pores of the medium.
    Q105How the Sediment Filters work?
    A105Sediment filters work by mechanical sieve action. They are used for removing dirt and other particles from water.
    Q106Why is a Sediment Filter needed if your water comes from a private well?
    A106If your water comes from a private well, it may contain sand, iron particles and other solid that need to be removed. These kinds of particles are large and require a sediment filter for removal.
    Q107Why is it recommended to use a special sediment filter even though the coarse particles of water from a public water supply are already removed?
    A107Water from a public water supply has already had the coarse particles removed, but it still has fine particles remaining. You cant see these fine particles but they can damage the components of a water purifier. To eliminate this problem, a special sediment filter that can trap them is frequently used as the first stage of a drinking water purifier. This protects the other stages from getting clogged.
    Q108What are sizes of the Sediment filters for use on tap water from public water supplies (which has already been filtered)?
    A108Usually it comes in three sizes: 5, 10 and 20 microns. A 5-micron filter will provide complete protection for other stages of water purification. A 20-micron filter will provide slightly less protection but will last longer because it wont clog as quickly.
    Q109What is the required filter for the water in a private system?
    A109A sediment and carbon filter will be required.
    Q110 What are the 3 types of sediment filter for home applications?
    A110 for most home applications, there are three types of sediment filters available: wound string, rigid foam and pleated film.
    Q111 What is the type of the sediment filter which is most suitable for home use? And why?
    A111The pleated film type is generally the most suitable for home use because it has the largest surface area. Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane is an example of pleated film.
    Q112 Why will the pleated film type lasts longer?
    A112 before it is clogged with dirt buildup, and the thick, wet interior of the wound C string and rigid C foam types tends to support bacterial growth, while the continuous flushing action of the water across the pleated film does not.
    Q113 What is the use of Carbon Filters?
    A113 Carbon filters are used to remove a wide variety of chemical pollutants from water. They are especially effective on organic chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides and industrial chemicals. They are also effective in removing radon, chlorine, and bad tasted and smell.
    Q114 What will happen when you use good-quality carbon?
    A114 When good-quality carbon filters are properly used, they will remove 80-99 percent of the organic chemicals, radon, chlorine, and bad tastes and smells in water.
    Q116 What are the substances that carbon filters wont effect on?
    A116 They will not remove microorganisms or toxic minerals.
    Q117 What is type of carbon which is in the water filters and what is that made of?
    A117 The carbon in water filters is called activated carbon. This kind of carbon is made by specially heating wood, coconut shell or coal so that it forms millions of microscopic pores.
    Q118 What are the two forms of carbon that in wide use?
    A118 Granular and block. Carbon granules are about the size of coarse sand. Carbon block is fine carbon powder that has been bound together into a rigid solid.
    Q120 Why will a carbon block filter remove higher percentages of pollutants and will last longer than a granular carbon filter?
    A120 The granules in granular carbon are free to move, when water passes through a granular carbon are free to move, when water passes through a granular carbon filter it will try to find the shortest and easiest path. This creates channels, so that the water flowing through the filter does not contact all of the carbon.
    Q121 What is disadvantage of carbon block filter comparing to granular carbon filter?
    A121 A carbon block filter has the disadvantage of needing sediment pre-filter so that its dense pores are not clogged by dirt or mineral particles. A granular carbon filter, in contrast, acts as its own sediment filter.
    Q122 What are the main dependents that the carbon filters depend on?
    A122 Effective carbon filtration depends on several things. The most important are the amount of time the water contacts the carbon (the slower the flow, the more effective the filtration), the density of the carbon (carbon block is more effective than granular carbon, and fine granular carbon is more effective than coarse granular carbon), the quantity of carbon (the larger the filter, the more effective the filtration), and the amount of water that has passed through the carbon (the fresher the carbon the better the filtration).
    Q123 What are the two potential problems that are created by the carbon filters by accumulating within the filtering medium?
    A123 The first is that, with changes in water pressure, accumulated pollutants can break away cause some unlucky person to ingest a large dose of pollution. The second drawback is that the inside of a provides a supportive environment for the growth of certain kinds of bacteria. While these bacteria have not caused any disease symptoms, no one knows for sure how ingesting of them affects human health.
    Q124 How can be the potential problems of pollutant breakaway and bacterial growth minimized?
    A124 The potential problems of pollutant breakaway and bacterial growth can be minimized by replacing the carbon medium at regular designated intervals and by not using the first flow out of the filter in the morning, after the water has been standing all night. When you first turn on the tap in the morning,
    Q125 What is backwashing?
    A125 A value in the filter so that water flow through the carbon can be reversed. This is called backwashing. It is supposed to regenerate the carbon so that it will perform as new. While carbon backwashing will remove much of the accumulated sediment within the filter, it generally is not effective in removing chemical pollutants from within the pores of the carbon. Because of this and because it increases the potential for pollutant breakaway, it is not recommended to backwash a carbon filter that is used for drinking water. Backwash is good for Ultrafiltration using hollow fiber.
    Q126 What it isnt recommended to use carbon filter without disinfection in a private water system?
    A126 Because a large amount of potentially harmful bacteria could build up within the filter. Unless some methods of disinfection such as chlorine and/or UV are used ahead of the filter, a carbon filter should not be used along in a private water system for drinking water.
    Q127 What are the main things to remember if you use a carbon filter?
    A127 Avoid using the first flow: wait thirty seconds in the morning. Use a slow flow rate: one C half gallon per minute or less (the stream of water should be narrower than a pencil) Replace the carbon at regular intervals. If the output water begins to smell or taste bad, discard the carbon immediately.
    Q128 What are the three basic classes of waterborne Microorganisms?
    A128 viruses, bacteria and parasites C bacteria and parasites can be removed by specially designed filters, but viruses cannot because they are too small.
    Q129 What is the meaning of bacteriostatic?
    A129 In water treatment, there is an important distinction between removing bacteria from water and simply stopping their growth within the filter. Many filters are labeled bacteriostatic. This means that bacteria do not multiply within the filter. It does not mean that the filter removes bacteria from water.
    Q130 What are the two types of filters that remove bacteria and parasites from water? And what are the special features of them?
    A130 the membranes filter and the ceramic filter. Both types come with absolute seals C that is, there is no water leakage around the filter medium. All antibacterial filters need to be periodically cleaned. When bacteria and other microorganisms are trapped on a surface, they eventually build up a film that clogs the filter.
    Q131 What are the filter mediums that have been developed to remove dissolved lead and other toxic metals very effectively?
    A131 Alumina and redox filter
    Q132 What is the Alumina Filter? And what is the use of it?
    A132 Activated alumina is an EPA listed BAT for the removal of arsenic, fluoride, uranium, and selenium. While alumina traps toxic metals, it does not remove chlorine, organic chemicals or microorganisms. Like carbon filters, the performance of an alumina filter decreases with use. When used for the specific purpose of removing lead from water, a small alumina filter installed in a kitchen lasts for about two thousand gallons, or up to two years of average use.
    Q133 What is the Redox Filer, aka. KDF? And what is the use of it?
    A133 The other recent addition to the types of the filter available is the redox filter, also known as KDF. The term redox is an abbreviation of "reduction C oxidation", which is a chemical exchange process. In a redox filter, toxic metals in water are exchange with harmless sink and copper. The Zing C Copper in the filter also traps chlorine and smells caused by Hydrogen Sulfide, and it greatly reduces (but does not totally eliminate) any bacteria in the water.
    Q134 What is Osmosis?
    A134 Osmosis is the passage of molecules through the microscopic pores of a living or synthetic membrane.
    Q135 How the reverse Osmosis works?
    A135 In reverse osmosis water treatment, a thin synthetic membrane is used. Its pores are large enough to pass water molecules but too small to pass larger molecules. Water pressure forces water molecules through the membrane but leaves the larger molecules of pollutant behinds.
    Q136 State an advantage of RO units.
    A136 An advantage of RO units over filters is that they remove a wider variety of pollutants. A good quality RO unit will remove more than 90 percent of most toxic minerals and organic chemicals from water
    Q137 State why the RO units cannot be used for disinfecting water.
    A137 In theory, microorganisms which are much larger than the molecule C size force of an RO membrane, should all be rejected by the membrane. But in practice the pores of the membrane are not uniform enough to ensure the removal of all microorganisms. Because of this, RO units, by themselves, cannot be used for disinfecting water.
    Q138 What are the installation restrictions on RO units?
    A138 They cannot be installed on a private system unless the water has been disinfected. Extremely high levels of dissolved minerals in water (TDS, or Total Dissolved Solids) adversely affect the membranes. The performance of RO units is also proportional to water pressure. The higher the pressure, the better the performance. RO units installed in a low pressure system (water pressure below 40 pounds per square inch [ psi] ) require a special booster pump to increase the pressure. Where tap water comes from a public water system, and the water quality is known, there is usually no difficulty in operating an RO unit. But on private water systems, several tests (disinfection, pressure, TDS) must be done before determining whether or not an RO can be used.
    Q139 What is the advantage of RO membranes when comparing to filters?
    A139 Unlike filters, RO membranes do not accumulate any pollutants C the pollutants are constantly being washed away. And since there is no accumulation of pollutants there is no chance of pollutant break away as there is with filters. However, the RO membrane itself degrades with use. With clean, city water, a typical membrane last two to three years before it must be replaced. If there are bacteria in the water, if water has a high TDS (total dissolved solids) level, or if there are other adverse conditions, and RO membranes can fail free maturely, often after just a few months.
    Q140 What are the membrane types for RO units?
    A140 Membranes for RO units are made of two types: Cellulose Acetate (CA) and Thin Film Composite (TFC). TFC membranes outperform CA membranes and last longer. They are also slightly more expensive. Their disadvantage is that they cannot tolerate chlorinated water. If your tap water is chlorinated and you want to use an RO with a TFC membrane, you will also need to install chlorine pre-filter such as carbon.
    Q141 What is distillation?
    A141 Distillation is a simple, proven, dependable method of removing pollutants from water. Water is boiled and produces steam. The steam is cooled and condenses back into water. Any substances that cannot evaporate are left behind in the boiling chamber. Distillation removes the widest variety of pollutants from water of any single purification method.
    Q142 What is the type of pollutant that distillation does not remove well?
    A143 the class of organic chemicals known as volatile organics (VOCs), which evaporate easily.
    Q144 State differences between distillation and other type of water purification.
    A144 One of the fundamental differences between distillation and all other types of water purification is that distillation is very reliable. If the distiller is operating, the quality of the water it produces will be consistent. There is no decrease in performance over time; a ten-year-old distiller will produce the same quality of water as a new one. With a distiller, there is no requirement to replace filters or RO membranes at regular intervals. Also, a distiller is not so dependent on manufacturing quality control as other water purifiers standards.
    Q145 what are two basic types of distillers made for home use?
    A145 Air-cooled batch distillers and Water-Cooled, Continuous Flow Distillers.
    Q146 what is the technique used to control the heat of the Distiller?
    A146 A heating coil heats the water until steam is produced. The steam is then directed to a condensing surface that is cool by a fan. When the steam contacts the cool surface it condenses back into water and drift into the storage tank. The condensing surface is kept cool by the incoming trickle of cold tap water. Through contact with the condensing surface, the cold tap water is heated and drips into the boiling tank. This design is more energy efficient because when water enters the boiling tank it is already hot C not as much energy is required to turn the water to steam and less heat is wasted by being transferred to the surrounding air.
    Q147 Why it is not recommended to use distiller to remove volatile pollutants?
    A147 Volatile pollutants typically evaporate at lower temperatures than boiling water. lf air vents are located near the tap water, after it has been heated, volatile pollutants in the tap water will evaporate into the air before the tap water reaches the boiling chamber. This means that volatile pollutants never reach the boiling chamber and therefore will not be in the steam that is produced. Further, the temperature of the heated tap water can be adjusted to most effectively remove particular volatile pollutants that are known to be in your tap water.
    Q148 How does Ultraviolet (UV) Works?
    A148 Ultraviolet, or UV, is a radiation that is higher in the spectrum than visible light. It is known to be effective in killing bacteria and other microorganisms. The only types of microorganisms that cannot be killed by ultraviolet are those with hard coverings, such as giardia cysts (size > 5 micron, can be filtered by 1 micron PP, 0.1 micron UF and 0.0001 micron RO). Ultraviolet purifiers are made for the specific purpose of disinfecting water and are not effective in removing other pollutants.
    Q149 Name one of the best transmitters of UV radiation?
    A149 quartz glass, and it is used for most UV lamps.
    Q150 What are the three conditions must be met in order for a UV unit to disinfect water effectively?
  • (1) The UV lamp must produce above a critical intensity of radiation
  • (2) The water must be subject to this radiation for a minimum period of time
  • (3) The water must be clean. UV units employ many different designs to meet the first two conditions.
    Q151 What are the advantages of using UV.
    A151 UV adds nothing to water and takes nothing away. The advantage of this is that no toxic disinfectant remains in the water as with chlorine disinfection.
    Q152 What is the disadvantage of using UV?
    A152 The disadvantage is that, if microorganisms enter the water at any point after the UV treatment, there is no residual disinfectant to kill them. Not recommended if the untreated water contains high levels of coliform, substantial color, or suspended solids. (Where total coliform bacteria exceed 10 colonies per mL or fecal coliform bacteria exceed 100 colonies per 100 mL.)
    Q153 What are the Alternative Methods for filtering water?
  • de-ionization (DI).
  • Aeration
  • Ozonation
    Q154 What is the de-ionization process?
    A154 DI employs a tank of synthetic materials that attract and trap minerals as water passes through them. Like distillation, DI removes essentially all minerals from water. It does not remove other types of pollutants. DI is used when minerals must be completely removed from water and distillation is impractical.
    Q155 What is the Aeration method?
    A155 Another method for removing certain pollutants is aeration. Aeration simply means exposing water to lots of air. Aerators are used almost exclusively on private water systems. They have been traditionally used to remove bad smells (especially the rotten-egg odor of hydrogen sulfide) from water. More recently, they are also being used to remove radon and other volatile pollutants.
    Q156 What are the two kinds of aerators?
    A156 Pressurized and atmospheric.
    Q157 How do Pressurized aerators work?
    A157 Pressurized aerators employ air injectors that force air into a water line without losing water pressure. This type of aerator is not suitable for removing radon from water.
    Q157 How do Pressurized atmospheric aerators work?
    A157 An atmospheric aerator operates quite differently. It employs a nozzle that sprays a fine mist of water into an open tank. This allows volatile pollutants to evaporate into the surrounding air.
    Q158 What is the disadvantage of Atmospheric aerator?
    A158 This type of aerator is very effective at removing volatile pollutants. Its disadvantage is that when water is sprayed into the tank, water pressure is lost, and an additional pump is needed to repressurize the water.
    Q159 Describe Ozonation
    A159 Ozonation is sometimes used to disinfect drinking water in place of chlorine or ultraviolet treatment. Ozone is a toxic form of oxygen (O3 rather than O2 of ordinary oxygen). It is a very powerful and effective disinfectant that works by chemically burning up pollutants. However, its technology as a home drinking water treatment is not well developed and it tends to burn up purification equipment as well as pollutants. Also, some of the ozone that is generated escapes from water into the air. So when an ozonator is used indoors, it may raise the ozone concentration to a harmful level.
    Q160Why all water purifiers combine more than one method for home use?
    A160Because no single method of water purification can remove all potential pollutants, almost all water purifiers for home use combine more than one method.
    Q162Describe about the carbon filter and sediment filter combination?
    A162The first combination is a carbon filter with a sediment filter ahead of it to protect it from clogging. Together these do a good job of removing many pollutants.
    Q163What cannot be removed by the carbon-sediment filter combination?
    A163They cant remove such things as bacteria or toxic lead.
    Q164Why RO purifiers are always sold with sediment filters?
    A164Because of the delicacy of the RO membrane and prevent it from being clogged by sediments, a sediment pre-filter must be used to clean the water ahead of it.
    Q165Why RO purifiers- sediment filters combination are also comes with Carbon filters?
    A165And because RO membranes do not remove all organic pollutants and tastes and smells from water, these systems also come with a carbon filter.
    Q169What do the reverse osmosis purifiers typically include?
    A169They typically include an RO membrane cartridge; a sediment prefilter that protects the RO membrane, a carbon post filter that removes any remaining chemicals and gives the water a good taste; a storage tank for treated water; and a faucet to be installed on the countertop. Some systems come with an extra carbon prefilter for additional protection of the RO membrane. These undersink ROs must be connected to your cold water line and to a drain pipe
    Q170What is the efficiency of Standard under sink ROs?
    A170Standard under sink ROs produce 60 gallons of clean water in a twenty-four-hour period. This is usually far more than is needed, and the unit is off for most of the day. But the amount of drinking water available at any particular time depends on the size of the storage tank. RO storage tank typically hold 2-4 gallons of purified water, and this, too, is usually more than enough for an average familys use.
    Q171State the reason why the smaller membrane produces less water
    A171Because smaller surface area processes less water in a given time.
    Q172State a weak point of mini RO
    A172A weak point of one mini RO is the small carbon postfilter, which wears out quickly and doesnt allow enough water-contact time to be effective.
    Q173What are the two basic types of distiller systems ?Describe
    A173Manual and automatic.
    Q174What are the two ways to draw water from an automatic distiller?
    A174Ffrom a spigot mounted on the built-in storage tank or from a special fau
    Q175Why all distillers for home use is made with stainless steel?
    A175While stainless steel itself is a fairly inert material that does not leach pollutants into water
    Q176 State reasons to use UV for water treatment
    A176 There are different reasons for using a UV for water treatment in the home. The first reason is when a water source is known to contaminated by bacteria and/or viruses. The second reason for using a UV is on tap water that is free of obvious contamination but may contain small amounts of microorganisms that are potentially harmful when ingested, in other words, to insure that drinking water is safe.
    Q177What are the polycarbonate bottles?
    A177Most water bottles now sold are made of a clear, blue-tinted plastic called polycarbonate. These are strong, long-lasting and sufficiently inert (they don't leach chemicals into the water for most drinking water uses). Polycarbonate bottles are available in two-, three-, and five-gallon sizes. The smaller sizes are handier for pouring and carrying.
    Q178What are the travel filters?
    A178These are for use with treated, uncontaminated tap water not with untreated water from lakes, streams and ponds. Another type is the sipping filters, the small, tubular filters that look like fat straws.
    Q178Describe Multi-piece filters
    A178Several multi-piece filters are available. One of the most popular is a device that has several separate sections which fit together into the size of a large cup. This filter contains a redox medium plus granular carbon. The redox medium strongly inhibits bacterial growth within the filter.
    Q179What are the features of Camping Filters?
    A179These filters are very handy if you're camping near an untreated water source or if you're traveling to a foreign country where the water may not be safe. The traditional filters for this purpose employ a dense ceramic medium whose pores are tiny enough to prevent bacteria from getting through. In addition, a silver compound is integrated with the ceramic medium. This helps prevent bacterial growth from extending into the pores of the ceramic and it kills or renders inactive any viruses in the water (unlike silver in a carbon filter, which is not very effective).
    Q180What is a low cost way to reduce radon from household water
    A180A low-cost way to partially reduce radon from household water is to install small carbon filters on the showerheads.This won't eliminate radon that evaporates from baths, cooking, and the washing machine, but it will eliminate it from one area within the house that generates high radon concentrations.
    Q181Describe atmospheric aeration installation
    A181Atmospheric aeration is expensive, but it is the most effective and safest way to remove radon from water. Aerators for removing radon can be installed in a basement, garage or utility room with a vent for removing radon (or, where pipes don't freeze, outside the house, with no venting needed). They typically cost about $2,000, including installation.
    Q182What is a spin-down filter?
    A182Dirt in the water is separated by centri-fugal action and collects at the bottom of the filter. You can see the dirt accumulation through the clear housing. When the dirt builds up, you simply open a valve at the bottom of the housing and it flows out.
    Q183State a feature of ceramic filters that makes them used for long periods
    A183A nice feature of ceramic filters is that the surface of the ceramic can be scrubbed periodically and the filters used for very long periods without replacement.
    Q184What are The advantages of ceramic-silver and iodine resin filters each have?
    A184The ceramic type has been around for several decades and has a long track record of providing safe drinking water. While the iodine resin must be replaced after a certain quantity of water has been treated, the ceramic filter can be used indefinitely.
    Water Filter FAQ

    Q: This article by the World Health Organisation disagrees that lower TDS is better for human health. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/nutrientschap12.pdf.

    A: Water with TDS = 100 ppm has 100 mg of dissolved mineral mostly calcium and magnesium in one liter of water. It is recommended an adult should drink 2 liters of water a day. That will take in 200 mg or 0.2 g of mineral from water. A cup of milk contains 300 mg of calcium. A Dietary Supplement pill usually contains 100 - 200% of daily value of calcium along with other mineral. A balance diet should provide sufficient amount of mineral.

    Conclusion: It may not be good for health to drink only low TDS water without balance diet. However, drinking RO water with alkaline stage or Dietary Supplement is a reliable and predictable method to control what to take into your body. It is not worth the risk to drink in all potential pollutant for just small amount of mineral that can be obtained from other reliable sources.

    How to & Manual
    1. How to install Reverse Osmosis filter. It is as simple as 123.

    2. How to choose a Water Filter


    3. How to use Quick-fitting.

    4. How to clean Reverse Osmosis filter

    5. How to change Reverse Osmosis filter

    6. Drugs In Our Drinking Water CBS Report

    7. Theory of Reverse Osmosis

    8. Manual: Under-sink 5-stage, 6-stage, 7-stage RO systems (version 06/2016)   
    9. Manual: iSpring Commercial RO manual(version 12/2012)   
    10. Manual: iSpring Advanced Ultra-Filtration Water Filtration System (version 03202017)   

    11. Diagram of a 5-stage Reverse Osmosis Water Filter (with UV/DI/ALK post filter added)
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